psychology test #2 Flash Cards

 
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short-term memory only stores 7 or so bits of information, short term memory disappears because its not meaningfully encoded or rehearsed. 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 08:04:11 GMT view revision history
mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 08:04:11 GMT view revision history
levels of processing processing a word deeply-by its meaning (semantic encoding)-produces better recognition of it at a later time than does shallow processing by attending to is appearance or sound.
-acoustic: sound
-semantic: meaning
-visual: pictures/images
-chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units. often occurs automatically
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 08:04:11 GMT view revision history
effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
-rehearsal: the conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
-spacing effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved thru massed study or practice
-serial position effect: our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:55:48 GMT view revision history
automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, frequency, and of well-learned information (like word meanings)
-space: while reading your textbook you encode the place on a page where certain material appears, later you may visualize its location when trying to recall info
-time: while going about the day you unintentionally note the sequence of the day's events, later you may lose something and need to retrace your steps
-frequency: you effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen, enabling you to realize "this is the third time i ran into her today"
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:55:48 GMT view revision history
encoding the processing of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:55:48 GMT view revision history
information processing model to remember any event we must get information into our brain (encoding), retain that information (storage), and later get it back out (retrieval). 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:55:48 GMT view revision history
what is memory? the persistence of learning over time thru the storage and retrieval of information 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:46:40 GMT view revision history
observational learning -albert bandura "social learning theory"
-social learning or "vicarious learning" (learning behavior from others)
-a way to explain ppls behaviors thru observing and imitating models (modeling)
-effects of TV were beginning to be seriously considered
-bobo doll research by bandura
-social learning theory: media violence, results showed that ppl who play violent video games show more violence and aggressive thoughts as adults
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:46:40 GMT view revision history
classical (cc) vs. operant (oc) -in cc, automatic response to uncontrollable stimuli
-in oc, voluntary response to controllable stimuli. stimulus follows response
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:46:40 GMT view revision history
operant conditioning
schedules of reinforcement
-fixed-interval (set time) studying for weekly quizzes
-variable-interval (average time) radio ticket giveaways "sometime this hour"
-fixed-ratio (set #) coffee cards, 10 punches=1 free coffee
-variable-ratio (average #) slot machines
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:46:40 GMT view revision history
reinforcement and punishment -positive: adds behavior
-negative: removes behavior
-positive reinforcement (+desirable) getting an A on a test after studying
-negative reinforcement (-undesirable) taking aspirin for a headache
-positive punishment (+desirable) community service for a dui
-negative punishment (-desirable) revoking license for dui
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:38:27 GMT view revision history
operant conditioning (active) -an organism operates on the environment and learns from the consequences
-consequences determine whether a behavior will be repeated in the future
-law of effect: thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
-Skinner designed the operant chamber/skinner box which contained a key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of key pressing.
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:38:27 GMT view revision history
classical conditions of Emotions: Little Albert and Watson -Watson wanted to show phobias are classically conditioned
-Little Albert brought into lab, when furry lab rat presented to him, loud clang occurs behind Albert so he learns to fear the furry rat.
US: loud noise
UR: startled reflex
CS: rat
CR: startle/fear
-generalization: albert learns to fear other furry things (bunnys, etc.)
-discrimination: albert doesnt show fear to everything though (not scared of toys)
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:38:27 GMT view revision history
more on pavlov's dogs the pairing of the CS and US is the acquistion phase (learning phase), CS must precede US, so bell comes before meat. UR and CR are typically the same emitted behavior 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:38:27 GMT view revision history
classical conditioning (passive) -a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
PAVLOV'S DOGS
-the unconditioned stimulus/US (food in mouth) is presented just after the neutral stimulus (tone of bell). The US continues to produce an unconditioned response/UR (salvation)
-the neutral stimulus (tone of bell) alone now produces a conditioned response/CR (salvation), thereby becoming a conditioned stimulus/CS
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:25:23 GMT view revision history
underlying assumptions of learning theory/behaviorism -concentrate on observable events
-avoid mental explanations
-the mind as a "black box" one cannot peek into
-the environment controls behavior, so environment is input and observable behavior is output
-organisms are hedonistic (motivated to seek out pleasurable events and avoid painful events)
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:25:23 GMT view revision history
learning theory -what you do is based on rewards and punishments in the environment
-who you are is based on your personal history of rewards and punishments
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:25:23 GMT view revision history
radical behaviorism EVERYTHING you do is based on your history of transactions w/ the environment
-jon watson (famous behaviorist)
-behaviorists today acknowledge the mind but still focus on observable behaviors
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:25:23 GMT view revision history
associative learning vs. observational learning associative learning is associating 2 things together and 2 types of that are classical/operative conditioning
observational learning is learning something you SEE
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:10:33 GMT view revision history
what is learning? -learning is defined as relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:10:33 GMT view revision history
perceptual adaptation in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field. EX: putting on a pair of glasses 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:10:33 GMT view revision history
perceptual set a mental predisposition to perceive one thing, and not another. EX: ppl consider an adult-child pair looking more alike once they know they're parent/child.
Our schemas organize and interpret unfamiliar info
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 07:10:33 GMT view revision history
motion perception not perfect in humans 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:59:52 GMT view revision history
monocular cues (depth perception) depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone. Monocular cues (available to each eye separately) include the following:
1) relative size: if we saw two objects, we assume the smaller one is farther away
2) interposition: if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer
3) texture gradient: a gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance. objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed
4) linear perspective: parallel lines appear to converge w/ distance, the more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
5) light and shadow: nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes. the dimmer object seems farther away.
6) height in plane: we perceive objects that are higher as being farther away
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:59:52 GMT view revision history
binocular cues (depth perception) depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of 2 eyes. two eyes are better than one when judging distance
*retinal disparity: a binocular cue for perceiving depth-by comparing images from 2 eyeballs, the brain compute distance-the greater the disparity (difference) between the 2 images, the closer the object
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:59:52 GMT view revision history
depth perception the ability to see objects in 3D altho the images that strike the retina are 2D, allows us to judge distance. Ability is partly innate 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:59:52 GMT view revision history
form perception -figure vs. ground: the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).
-grouping=proximity (we group nearby figures together. we see not six separate lines, but 3 sets of 2 lines), similarity (we group together figures that are similar to each other. we see triangles and circles as vertical columns of similar shapes, not as horizontal rows of dissimilar shapes), closure (we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object). the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
1 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:45:49 GMT view revision history
perception/gestalt organize our sensations into perceptions into a "gestalt" (an organized whole. gestalt pyschologists emphasized tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes)
gestalt principles are form, depth and motion perception
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:43:11 GMT view revision history
phantom limbs and pain phantom limb pain is common in amputees (7 in 10). experience extreme pain in the limb that is not longer there. 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:43:11 GMT view revision history
biopsychosocial approach to pain -bio: injured nerves sending impulses to the brain
-psychological: expectations are influential, distractions, memories of pain usually not accurate
-social: presence of others, if you're around a lot of ppl also in pain your more likely to experience more pain. empathy can make you feel some kind of actual pain
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:43:11 GMT view revision history
Gender differences in pain tolerance? Men actually have higher pain tolerance than women, but women's pain tolerance varys depending on estrogen (like when they're prego) 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:36:20 GMT view revision history
Gate-Control Theory small fibers in the spinal cord open a "gate" to permit pain signals to travel up to the brain OR large fibers close the "gate" to prevent the passage of singals 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:36:20 GMT view revision history
pain -alarm system, tells us something hurts
-stimulus: no single stimulus/no specific sensory receptors
-instead we have *nonciepters: sensory receptors that detect hurtful temps, pressure, or chemicals
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:36:20 GMT view revision history
priming the (often unconscious) activation of certain associations. Predisposing one's perception, memory, or response. EX: "old ppl study" 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:36:20 GMT view revision history
embodied cognition we physically act out what we think or are primed to think 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:32:33 GMT view revision history
sense: bodily -stimulus: movement of the body, changes in position/gravity
*kinesthetic sense (movement) position and movement of individual parts
*vestibular sense is the sense of the body movement and position, including the sense of balance
-sense organ: muscle and joint tissue, semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the ear, ear associated w/ balance
-sensory receptors: specialized nerve endings
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:32:33 GMT view revision history
Detecting gender by smell? experiment showed that ppl could distinguish between sweaty male and female hands w/ 80% accuracy 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:32:33 GMT view revision history
sense: smell -stimulus: airborne odor molecules
-sense organ: nose
-sense receptors: 5 million cells at top of each nasal cavity, we can detect up to 10,000 odors
-smell has a lot of links to memory, random smells can trigger specific memories and taste is also sorta connected to memory but not as much as smell
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:32:33 GMT view revision history
cultural differences in taste taste varys depending on culture
taste differences start in pregnancy/infancy
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:26:47 GMT view revision history
sense: taste -stimulus: chemicals dissolved in saliva
-sense organ: mouth and tongue
-sensory receptors: 200+ taste buds w/ 50-100 taste receptor cells in each. like sweet, sour, salty, bitter
-closely related to smell b/c both are chemical senses
-expectations influence taste, same w/ smell
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:26:47 GMT view revision history
sense: touch -stimulus: pressure, warmth, cold, pain
-sense organ: skin, also muscles, organs
-sensory receptors: only pressure has identifiable receptors
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:26:47 GMT view revision history
sense: hearing -stimulus: sound waves
-length (frequency) of wave determines pitch
-amplitude (strength) of wave determines loudness
-sense organ: ear
-sensory receptors: 16,000 hair cells in the cochlea
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:26:47 GMT view revision history
sense: sight -light waves are actually a form of energy (electromagnetic...?)
-length (width) of wavelength determines hue (color)
-amplitude (height) in wave determines intensity
-stimulus: light waves
-sense organ: eye
-sensory receptors: generate neural signals carried to the brain *RODS (120 million) detect white, gray, and black neccessaru for twilight vision & *CONES (6 million) detect color
-primary colors of light are red, green, blue
-trichromatic color representation
-color opponent system=red/green, blue/yellow, white/black. & after-image EFFECT
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:20:14 GMT view revision history
our senses 1) sight
2) hearing
3) touch
4) taste
5) smell
6) body position/movement
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:20:14 GMT view revision history
sensory interaction sense may influence another w/ in the same sense (taste of 1 food may influence the taste of another) 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:20:14 GMT view revision history
sensory adaptation diminished sensitivity to constant stimulation (like when you first put on a necklace you notice it but eventually forget it's there) 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:20:14 GMT view revision history
difference threshold/weber's law the JUST noticeable difference, the minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
weber's law: must differ by a constant proportion (not amount) the JND (just noticeable difference) for weight is about 2% according to weber
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:13:58 GMT view revision history
absolute threshold the minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:13:58 GMT view revision history
SENSATION
thresholds
boundary between sensing and NOT sensing 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:13:58 GMT view revision history
Sensation to Perception (the steps) 1) stimulus
2) sensation
3) transduction
4) perception
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:13:58 GMT view revision history
transduction transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses our brains can interpret 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:10:35 GMT view revision history
psychophysics OFFICIAL DEF: the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience with them.
Gustav Fechner came up w/ mathematical equation
relationship between: physical characteristics of our stimuli (light, sound, pressure, sugar) and our psychological experience w/ them (bright, volume, weight, sweet)
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:10:35 GMT view revision history
Perception Process by which we select, organize, and interpret our own sensations.
*top-down processing: info processing guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawing on our experience and expectations
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:10:35 GMT view revision history
Sensation The process by which we detect and encode physical energy.
*bottom-up processing: analysis of the stimulus begins w/ sense receptors and works upto the level of the brain/mind, like processing lines, angles, colors
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 06:10:35 GMT view revision history
social development:
marriage and friendship
according to gotman, what makes a successful marriage? friendship, respect, enjoyment, know eachother intimately, abiding regard that you show everyday, healthy arguments
what's destructive in a marriage? criticism, contempt (resentment), defensiveness, stonewalling (holding things in)
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:58:19 GMT view revision history
cognitive development:
memory
we dont forget everything
old ppl are more likely to remember recent past events and events that happened to them in their late teens/20s
recalling names becomes increasingly difficult
recognition memory does NOT decline w/ age (you can recall if you saw something)
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:58:19 GMT view revision history
Alzheimers Disease loss of brain cells
neurons responsible for memory and thinking deteriorate
eventually become emotionally void and mentally empty
cannot be prevented but being physically and mentally active your less likely to develop it
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:58:19 GMT view revision history
emerging adulthood ages 18 to 25
characterized by identity exploration, instability, self-focus, "in-between", possibilities
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:58:19 GMT view revision history
Erickson's Stages of Psychosocial development 1) INFANCY, trust vs. mistrust, if needs are dependably met-infants develop basic sense of trust
2) TODDLERHOOD, autonomy vs. shame/doubt, toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves OR they doubt their abilities
3) PRESCHOOLER, initiative vs. guilt, preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans OR they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
4) ELEMENTARY, competence vs. inferiority, children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks OR they feel inferior
5) ADOLESCENCE, identity vs. role confusion, teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and intergrating them to form a simple identity OR they become confused about who they are
6) YOUNG ADULTHOOD, intimacy vs. isolation, young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity of intimate love OR they feel socially isolated
7) MIDDLE ADULTHOOD, generativity vs. stagnation, in middle age ppl discover a sense of contributing to the world thru family/work OR they may feel lack of purpose
8) LATE ADULTHOOD, Integrity vs. despair, while reflecting on his/her life older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction OR failure
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:53:07 GMT view revision history
primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics primary: ovaries, testes, vag, penis, etc.
secondary: boobs, hair, etc.
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:53:07 GMT view revision history
puberty the period of sexual maturation, when a person becomes capable of reproduction 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:53:07 GMT view revision history
adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:53:07 GMT view revision history
Moral Thinking and 3 Basic Levels of it According to... KOHLBERG: sought development of moral reasoning, research led us to believe that as we develop intellectually, we pass thru 3 basic levels of moral thinking: 1)Preconventional Morality: Before age 9, most children have preconventional morality of self interest EX: they obey either to avoid punishment or gain a concrete reward
2) Conventional Morality: By early adolescense, morality usually evolves to amore conventional level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply b/c they are laws/rules
3)Postconventional Morality: Some of those who develop the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought may come to a 3rd level. Affirms ppl's agreed-upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:44:39 GMT view revision history
basic trust according to developmental theorist Erik Erickson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy, said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences w/ responsive caregivers 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:44:39 GMT view revision history
Ainsworth's studies secure attachment: babies are okay in strange place as long as mother is present they can play comfortably but when mother leaves they become distressed and go to her when she returns
insecure attachment: babies are uncomfortable in strange place and cling to their mothers and when their mothers leave they either totally freak or just chill without doing anything
ALSO: good mothers' babies displayed secure attachment while bad mothers' babies displayed insecure attachment
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:44:39 GMT view revision history
The Harlow Psychologists Experiment Monkeys and their artificial mothers, monkeys preferred soft mommy over the mommy that fed them which was surprising at the time b/c ppl thought infants were attached to their mommys because of food and not because of comfort 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:44:39 GMT view revision history
attachment bond a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to caregivers. an emotional tie w/ another person, shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress at separation (bowlby?) 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:37:29 GMT view revision history
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development 1)Sensorimotor: (birth to 2 yrs) experiencing the world thru senses and actions like looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping. -Developmental Phenomena: object permanence and stranger anxiety

2)Preoperational: (2 to 7 yrs) representing things w/ words and images, use intuitive rather than logical reasoning -Developmental Phenomena: pretend play, egocentrism, language development

3)Concrete operational: (7 to 11 yrs) Thinking logically about concrete events, grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations -Developmental Phenomena: conservation, mathematical transformations

4)Formal Operational: (12 yrs to adulthood) Abstract reasoning -Developmental Phenomena: abstract logic, potential for mature, moral reasoning
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:37:29 GMT view revision history
Piaget was a developmental psychologist that focused on children and was convinced that children reasoned differently than adults and their minds were NOT mini models of adult's minds. The child's mind develops in stages. The brain builds concepts (schemas) as it matures. Proposed 2 processes: 1) we ASSIMILATE new experiences, interpreting one's new experience in terms of of one's existing schemas EX: a toddler calls an animal w/ 4 legs "doggie" 2) we ACCOMMODATE, adapting one's current understandings/schemas to incorporate new info EX: toddler realizes "doggie" schema is too broad and focuses on the head of animal 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:37:29 GMT view revision history
cognitive development adolescent's ability to reason gives them social awareness. they start thinking about 1) their own thinking 2) what others are thinking 3) what others think about them 4) how ideas can be reached. They criticize society, rents, and themselves. Most adolescents achieve what Piaget called "formal operations", when you become capable of abstract logic: "if this, then that..." 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:37:29 GMT view revision history
maturation a part of physical development for infants
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively UNinfluenced by experience
0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:24:32 GMT view revision history
fetal stage the fetus is the developing human organism from 9 week afters conception until birth 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:24:32 GMT view revision history
embryo the developing human organism about 2 weeks after fertilization thru the second month 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:24:32 GMT view revision history
zygote the fertilized egg, it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division 0 alicoyle Fri, 09 Oct 2009 05:24:32 GMT view revision history

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