Radiographic exposure III Flash Cards

 
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wet pressure looks like circular patterns 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:25:44 GMT view revision history
greasy appearance inadequate washing 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:23:43 GMT view revision history
dichrotic stains chemicals on surface of film 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:23:43 GMT view revision history
wet pressure sensitization wet rag on developing film 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:23:43 GMT view revision history
Pi lines dirty rollers 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:23:43 GMT view revision history
emulsion pick uff scratched emultion 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:21:41 GMT view revision history
curtain effect developer drips down 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:21:41 GMT view revision history
chemical fog depleted chemicals 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:21:41 GMT view revision history
Image Artifacts occur when imaging process 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:21:41 GMT view revision history
Blur is greater where cathode side of beam 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:15:32 GMT view revision history
Magnification factor equation Image size SID
----------------- = --------------------
object size SOD
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:15:32 GMT view revision history
penumbras are an effect of magnification or size distortion 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:15:32 GMT view revision history
what affects distortion thickness, positioning, object shape 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:15:32 GMT view revision history
blur inherent to inherent to focal spot 1 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 02:17:54 GMT view revision history
magnification size 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:12:58 GMT view revision history
distortion is affected by size and shape 1 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 02:19:56 GMT view revision history
3 geocentric factors distortion

magnification
blur
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:12:58 GMT view revision history
Temperature
density
contrast

for processing
As temp increases
density increases
contrast decreases

As time decreases
density decreases
contrast decreases
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:12:16 GMT view revision history
Time, density, contrast for processing As time increases
density increases
contrast decreases

As time decreases
density decreases
contrast decreases
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:12:16 GMT view revision history
density formula and range log10(Io/It)

0-4, 4 all black
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:12:16 GMT view revision history
Slow image receptors have low noise
high spacial resolution
high contrast resolution
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:12:16 GMT view revision history
Fast image receptors have high noise
low spatial resolution
low contrast resolution.
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:02:56 GMT view revision history
Noise random fluctuation in the optical density of the image

film graininess
structure mottle
quantum mottle
scatter radiation
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:02:56 GMT view revision history
Contrast resolution improves with Contrast resolution improves with sectional imaging methods and the use of contrast media 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:02:56 GMT view revision history
Spatial resolution improves as Spatial resolution improves as screen blur decreases, motion blur decreases, and geometric blur decreases. 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:02:56 GMT view revision history
contrast resolution contrast resolution
ability to distinguish anatomical structures of similar subject contrast
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:00:17 GMT view revision history
spatial resolution spatial resolution
the ability to image small objects that have high subject contrast
0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:00:17 GMT view revision history
Resolution the ability to image two separate objects and visually distinguish one from the other 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:00:17 GMT view revision history
Radiographic quality the fidelity with which the anatomic structures being examined in the image are imaged on the radiograph 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 01:00:17 GMT view revision history
Focal spot blur can be reduced by using a
A) small focal spot.
B) shorter SID.
C) larger OID.
D) All of the above.
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:57:58 GMT view revision history
What sort of artifact is a guide-shoe mark?
A) exposure artifact
B) processing artifact
C) handling artifact
D) storage artifact
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:57:58 GMT view revision history
he inherent base density plus fog density in film is ___________.
A) 0.0–0.1
B) 0.1–0.3
C) 0.5–1.0
D) 1.0–1.3
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:57:58 GMT view revision history
The slope of the ________ portion of the characteristic curve shows the film contrast.
A) base
B) shoulder
C) toe
D) straight line
D 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:57:30 GMT view revision history
The three primary geometric factors affecting image quality are
A) distortion, subject contrast, and mAs.
B) patient thickness, distortion, and magnification.
C) magnification, distortion, and focal spot blur.
D) kVp, focal spot blur, and contrast.
C 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:57:30 GMT view revision history
An image receptor with _____________ can be used over a greater range of exposures.
A) wide latitude
B) high contrast
C) narrow latitude
D) high average gradient
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:57:30 GMT view revision history
What is the formula for optical density?
A) OD = log10(Io/It)
B) OD = log10(It/Io)
C) OD = Io/It
D) OD = It/ Io
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:57:30 GMT view revision history
The largest number of repeat exams are generally caused by ___________ types of artifacts.
A) processing
B) handling
C) exposure
D) storage
C 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:56:47 GMT view revision history
Low humidity in the darkroom can cause
A) tree static.
B) brown stains.
C) pressure marks.
D) film fog.
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:56:47 GMT view revision history
A film with a characteristic curve showing a high slope would be useful when___________ is needed.
A) low contrast
B) wide latitude
C) high contrast
D) fine detail
C 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:56:47 GMT view revision history
Distortion can be reduced by
A) placing the object plane perpendicular to the image plane.
B) placing the object plane parallel to the image plane.
C) directing the central ray 15° from the object plane.
D) increasing the SID and the OID.
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:56:47 GMT view revision history
GU = OID/SOD X FSS 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:55:00 GMT view revision history
Which set of exposure factors will produce the greatest image blur?
A) 160 cm SID 20 cm OID 0.3 mm FSS
B) 100 cm SID 15 cm OID 2.0 mm FSS
C) 80 cm SID 25 cm OID 1.0 mm FSS
D) 100 cm SID 25 cm OID 0.6 mm FSS
C 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:55:00 GMT view revision history
If 10% of the viewbox light is transmitted through an area of film, what is the optical density in that area?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:55:00 GMT view revision history
An artifact can be
A) an object that is not part of the radiographed anatomy.
B) patient motion.
C) an improper grid or warped cassette.
D) Any of the above.
D 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:55:00 GMT view revision history
Subject contrast is affected by
A) mAs.
B) focal spot size.
C) patient thickness.
D) voltage ripple.
C 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:53:03 GMT view revision history
The best way to minimize magnification is to use a
A) long SID.
B) small OID.
C) large OID.
D) Both a and b.
D 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:53:03 GMT view revision history
A static mark artifact is created during ________________ of the film.
A) exposure
B) development
C) handling
D) All of the above.
C 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:53:03 GMT view revision history
Kink marks are caused by
A) fingernails.
B) light leaks.
C) misaligned rollers.
D) bending film.
D 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:53:03 GMT view revision history
Which of the following sets of exposure factors will result in a radiograph with the highest radiographic contrast?
A) 800 mA 120 ms 90 kVp 8:1 grid ratio 1.0 mm FSS
B) 400 mA 150 ms 85 kVp 12:1 grid ratio 2.0 mm FSS
C) 600 mA 200 ms 94kVP 6:1 grid ration 0.5 mm FSS
D) 200 ma 100 ms 88 kVp 5:1 grid ratio 1.0 mm FSS
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:52:31 GMT view revision history
The densities above 2.5 on a film are represented in the ______ portion of the characteristic curve.
A) base + fog
B) toe
C) straight-line portion
D) shoulder
D 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:52:31 GMT view revision history
What is the formula for the magnification factor?
A) MF = SID/SOD
B) MF = SOD/SID
C) MF = (SID/SOD)2
D) MF = SID2/SOD
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:52:31 GMT view revision history
Misalignment of the processor turnaround assembly can cause ______________.
A) tree static
B) grid cut-off
C) Pi lines
D) guide-shoe marks
D 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:52:31 GMT view revision history
A ________________ is an example of an exposure artifact.
A) foreign object
B) Pi line
C) pressure mark
D) dichroic stain
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:51:54 GMT view revision history
Which of these body parts has the highest subject contrast?
A) abdomen
B) skull
C) chest
D) pelvis
C 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:51:54 GMT view revision history
Lines that occur 3.14 inches apart on the finished radiograph are caused by
A) misalignment of guide-shoes.
B) chemical buildup on rollers.
C) poor film-screen contact.
D) grid cut-off during exposure.
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:51:54 GMT view revision history
In screen/film radiography, the useful optical densities on a characteristic curve lie between ____ and ____.
A) 0.25, 2.25
B) 0.5, 1.0
C) 1.0, 1.5
D) 2.0, 3.0
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:51:54 GMT view revision history
Which set of exposure factors will result in the least amount of radiographic density?
A) 400 mA 100 ms 70 kVp 200 RSV 12:1 grid ratio 150 cm SID
B) 200 mA 400 ms 75 kVp 400 RSV 6:1 grid ratio 200 cm SID
C) 300 mA 200 ms 80 kVp 800 RSV 8:1 grid ratio 100 cm SID
D) 800 mA 100 ms 65 kVp 200 RSV 8:1 grid ratio 200 cm SID
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:51:07 GMT view revision history
A greasy appearance of a film is usually caused by
A) inadequate washing.
B) excess hardener chemicals.
C) improper developer heat.
D) inadequate processing chemistry.
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:51:07 GMT view revision history
A streak of high optical density on the finished radiograph can be caused by
A) film boxes stacked too high in storage.
B) light leaks in the cassette or darkroom.
C) inadequate washing in the processor.
D) high humidity in the darkroom.
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:51:07 GMT view revision history
Higher speed image receptors generally produce images with
A) better resolution.
B) increased noise.
C) higher contrast.
D) improved detail.
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:51:07 GMT view revision history
__________ is defined as the ability to image two separate objects and visually detect one from the other.
A) Contrast
B) Resolution
C) Detail
D) Noise
B 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:49:40 GMT view revision history
Spatial resolution improves with decreased
A) screen blur.
B) motion blur.
C) geometric blur.
D) All of the above.
D 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:49:40 GMT view revision history
A high quality radiograph should always demonstrate
A) structures and tissues.
B) high contrast.
C) minimum magnification.
D) All of the above.
A 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:49:40 GMT view revision history
Radiographic ________ is random fluctuation in the optical density of a radiograph.
A) detail
B) contrast
C) noise
D) resolution
C 0 seraphimlance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 00:49:40 GMT view revision history

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