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History 123 Final Flash Cards

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Horowitz: Confederates in the Attic -Most interested in how African Americans remembered this history; Crumwell and Frederick Douglas
-----Black experience in eamerica can not be reduced to and defined by slavery
-----Move forward, look ahead; cant just say our experience is slavery

------Despises the idea of forgetting about slavery
------Seeing what’s happened when whites are forgetting about slavery; war was about states rights etc.

-Even they were debating about how to remember this; even as early as the 1880s
-They are saying what role should this past; this history of enslavement play in our identity and political struggles today; 1880s and 90s
-What part slavery should play in African American identity
-Still a live issue but goes way back
-Hurrowitz has a different civil war memory
-What are they thinking? Hard cores were ugys who do their best to recreate civil war regiment; but they did the battles, but got blankets, food, buttons, starve themselves, one guy specialized in bloating; renacting details requires a historical knowledge
-Hurrowitz is kind of entertained; but thinks its crazy
-They’re making a serious point; when you look at war up close its not happy, its stomach turning
-Hurrowtiz thinks they’re after a high
-Crumwell and Douglas arguing bout something of great importance
-But people who are the custodians of the reenactor culture empties out the politics and the difficult questions of what this was about to things like do they have the proper buttons
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 20:39:49 GMT view revision history
Harmon: “American Indians and Land Monopolies” -Senator Dawes objected to the communal ownership of American Indian land because it discouraged “selfishness, which is at the bottom of civilization”
-without titles to private tracts, Indians lacked incentive to work for their own gain as civilized people did
-Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks and Seminoles, included many keep able enterprising businessmen, a few of whom has appropriated everything for their own benefit, especially tribal acreage.
-A few people in the five tribes were assuming possession of the tribal domain for their own private benefit
-Eastern Europeans hoped to bring Indians into US society as yeoman farmers, thereby saving them from annihilation as civilization advanced and affirming the vitality of agrarian ideals in an age of industrialization and urbanization
-Some Indians addressed the same subjects in their forums, and used English rhetoric
-Tribal discussion of land use property is significant in its own right because it’s a neglected chapter of Indian’s intellectual history
-The effort of looking for correspondence enables us to see that some Indians shared Gilded Age American’s worry about proliferating monopolies.
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 20:39:49 GMT view revision history
Hoxie: A Final Promise -The Northern Cheyenne—had been confined to Fort Robinson after they refused to return to their bleak reservation in Indian territory
-Camp commander cut off the group’s food and water. On the fifth night of confinement the Indians gathered weapons they had hidden and staged a breakout
-Brutal and inhumane massacre of the Indians
-They were starved and soldiers fired at them
-Indians hated their relocation because the food supplies were low and medical care was unavailable
-Standing Bear escaped too, then arrested
-He toured all over the US and crowds cheered, made the Indian Reservation issue a national issue
-Court case: Standing Bear’s release encouraged critics of the government’s program. The decision effectively removed the legal bias for the entire separation strategy.
-It appeared that the Indian Office was no longer able to confine tribes to reservations and force “civilization” on them
-Women’s National History Association wanted to assimilate the Indians; reformers could only be successful when they linked their agenda to the wider concerns and aspirations of the American public
-Morgan, anthropologist, called attention to the dynamic potential of social evolutionism. Cultures were not prisoners of their stage of development
-Had to remove Indians from tribal lands bc too sacred to them, then they can become civilized; citizenship and total assimilation should be the twin goals of all legislation
-Fletcher wanted to assign Indians individual tracts of land
-Dawes had a competitor for his senate seat; had to save his career, took this Indian approach, everyone loved him he won
-His opposition was sectional; westerners didn’t want the federal government getting involved in their issues
-Dawes loyalists were Republicans
-Expansion of the rail systems through the territories
-Continued to shrink Indian territories so that they would assimilate and because a larger percentage would go to whites
-Businesses wanted that land as well
-Education of native Americans went from boarding schools like the Carlisle school to a sort of public school system that was established for them
-Southerners were hostile to federal aid to nonwhite minorities
-While Indians were definitely considered inferior, they were also getting more federal funding than any other nonwhite minority, Asians, blacks etc.
-Dawes act declared that allottees would be granted citizenship
-Still little more than a statement of intent. Contained no timetables and few instructions as to how it would be implemented. (was an assertion that the gap between two races would be overcome and that Indians would be incorporated into American society)
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 20:39:49 GMT view revision history
DuBois: Feminism and Suffrage -Immediately after Lincoln issued the emancipation proclamation, Stanton and Anthony organized the National Loyal Women’s League to push for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery.
-Abolition of slavery reshaped the postwar women’s movement; reinforced the movement’s tendency to focus on woman suffrage by making the issue of political rights a question of national political significance
-Encouraged a shift in emphasis among women’s rights advocates toward the suffrage demand
-Contrary to feminist leaders expectations; black suffrage rights didn’t directly benefit woman suffrage
-Some arguments men made about black suffrage could have been applied to women, others could not, like the argument that black suffrage was the only secure basis for Reconstruction.
-There could be no claims made of partisan benefit or political expediency for woman suffrage
-From the beginning of reconstruction, abolitionist leaders indicated that woman suffrage wouldn’t be part of their efforts
-Woman suffragists tried to direct their petitions to friendly democrats to spare republicans the burden, radical republicans got a hold and withheld them
-Created new American Equal Rights Association; significant political advance in the formation of their own organization
-Most creative response to turn attention to black women and their double disenfranchisement;
•Two referenda for November election; one on black suffrage one on woman suffrage in Kansas
-Dems for women and repub for black; both failed
-kansas didnt advance their position other than have a pop referendum
-repub only defer to black man's need; and stanton and anthony reorganized into an autonomous feminist movement
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 20:39:49 GMT view revision history
Gutman: Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America -Protestant work ethic was not deeply ingrained in the nation’s social fabric
-others represented an entirely different work ethic
-Resulted from the fact that the American working class was continually altered in its composition by infusions, from within and without the nation, of peasants, farmers, skilled artisans, and casual day laborers who brought into industrial society ways of work and other habits and values not associated with industrial necessities and the industrial ethos.
-Even in the land of Franklin, Carnegie, Ford, nonindustrial cultures and work habits regularly thrived and were nourished by new workers alien to the “Protestant” work ethic
-Only a decisive as well as intelligent and honest government, dams believed, could develop such “virtues” and “habits”
-“Saint Monday” he said, is a duly kept by our working people as Sunday; the only difference is that instead of employing their time cheaply at church they are wasting it expensively at the ale house
-Because so few workers belonged to permanent trade unions before 1940, its overall conceptualization excluded most working people from detailed and serious study
-Human behavior, whether individual or collective, is invariably the resultant of two factors: the cognitive system as well as the goals and patterns of behavior as defined by culture systems, on the one hand, and the system of real contingencies as defined by the social structure on the other.
-Holidays and festivals that kept laborers from their work upset employers, especially considering all of the different religions and cultures that made up the labor force
-Those who do not expect to work in a factory for too long will not organize or complain about their circumstances; Lowell Mill Girls etc. little incentive to join unions
-It was thought that men in America could be their own rulers, but it was soon discovered that this was not the case; working people of this country suddenly find capital as rigid as an absolute monarchy; there wasn’t very much opportunity for upward mobility
----Robber barrons
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 20:39:49 GMT view revision history
Chandler: Visible Hand -- view: system builder view of the rise of corporate capitalism in the late 19th century
-About building up new methods of organizations
-More pertinent to our understanding of managerial capitalism today; goes into the economic history
-Modern business and modern management learn the lessons that have developed
-they are portraying different people; some build the systems and some steal and rip off their customers, investors, etc. and then build big mansions
-----easy to see them as competing narratives, but that’s not right, they were both going on
-----we could disagree on which is the more important story, Chandler is arguing that his is the more important one and that the story about robber barrons really doesn’t capture the whole thing
--big development is modern management
-Competent middle class working people who paid careful attention to detail, not so much for their own gain so much as problem solving
---org chart and the use of data
-The thing about these stories is that they are very different and both true
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 19:59:56 GMT view revision history
Josephson: Robber Barrons -Robber barrons story is about buccaneering entrepreneurs who were amoral if not immoral, greedy, conspicuous consumption, and a public be damned attitude
-John D. Rockefeller, Pierpont Morgan, Armour, Gould, and the other gifted young entrepreneurs who were of proper age, sent substitutes to the draft armies
-Jay Cooke was the sole financier of the US government during the Civil War because of how many bonds he sold, ¼ of all sold
-Interested in idea of whole development and these guys and their full character; developed idea of what that world was like
-Tells a dramatic story but sort of like turning history into a novel; history isn’t that neat; real romantic view
-Story of self made man; nice prose etc. made you believe that these guys were bad
-Their games with each other make other people lose their life savings
-Described the system too that was the basis of industrial capitalism that was born of government giveaways and exploitation
----Exploiting the war effort; produced shotty material
-Robber barrons: corruption, fraud, stealing from the public
--some steal and rip off their customers, investors, etc. and then build big mansions
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 19:59:56 GMT view revision history
Ransom and Sutch: One Kind of Freedom -Storekeeper came to be seen as an oppressor who exploited and coerced his customers and who displaced the landowner as the leader of the community
-Famers of the south first
-Apparently the source of the merchant’s power was his control over the new system of providing short-term agricultural credit
-Success in establishing and protecting a territorial monopoly: controlling/monopolizing the immediate area
-Only branch of business that the general merchant had a monopoly over was the supply of credit; all he needed to est more far reaching control; credit was absolute necessity for most small farmers, insist farmers conducted all business at his store
-as few farmers were able to buy regularly cheap on a cash basis
-cotton farmers had to pay between 30 and 70% higher for using credit than cash for supplies
-credit charges cover processing the loan and providing supervision to protect the merchant’s investment, and make sure they didn’t default
-still inflated prices were exaggerated
-monopoly of the southern general store was small but secure
-outside investors would find the monopoly profits too small in the aggregate to be attractive. Monopolistic practices were unlikely to cause much notice outside his own territory; despite economic and social power
-new stores emerged whenever existing firms were far enough apart that spatial costs made each of them relatively expensive for farmers situated near the border of the competing markets
-many merchants became landowners, and common for landowners to enter into furnishing business; most successful entrants into credit merchandising were local landowners who began to supply their own tenants
---the economic power of the credit monopolist and the landowner joined forces
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 18:10:55 GMT view revision history
Nelson, the Fourteenth Amendment -Difficult to secure the loyalty of southern congressmen
-Delegates; for ratification of the amendment in southern states might be killed; in the north you could say what you wanted freely
-Northerners thought southerners couldn’t be trusted to govern themselves
-Drafters of the amendment knew that they were framing fundamental law for the foundation of the future of the nation
-Because of the 13th amendment, the black population would be fully counted for determining the regions’ representation in congress and the electoral college
-CW fought in part to defeat southern dominance politically, now again in danger of that dominance
-The initial 14th amendment was clear and unambiguous; the final version was not
-Presented two parts of the package separately; one was killed the other made the language vague which introduced possibly redundancy into the Join Committee’s proposals;
-substituted immunities for political rights; so the key question became what are the privileges and immunities of citizens and how do they differ, if at all, from the rights of life, liberty, and property?
-14th amendment was so popular and successful
-application of higher law tradition: black men have certain inalienable god given rights as well; key argument
-saw the rights of human nature and the rights of living under a republican government as overlapping
-Proponents of the 14th amendment conceded that rights derived from higher law or from the nature of citizenship in a republic were not absolute but were subject to reasonable regulation by government, including the states.
-Did not mean that blacks should have the same socio-economic position in the south as whites; just the same political and legal position
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 18:10:55 GMT view revision history
Foner: Short History -similar to DuBois; black folks did help democracy
-why were governments so expensive?
---KEY POINT: Governments before the civil war had done hardly anything; they are now creating a school system for the first time, that costs money; cities now pave streets for the first time, installing sewers; building hospitals; funding medical care and poor relief
-African Americans wanted; they wanted schools they didn’t care if they were segregated
-You have black teachers if the schools are segregated so they don’t care; they just want access
-Not transferring money to rebuild the statehouse; no federal aid; really important; how can they borrow?
---Sell bonds; who will buy the bonds of governments where all the local elites are determined to make them fail; who will lend money where overwhelming majority of constituents had vowed to destroy it; high interest rates,
----State aid to railroads; rebuilding basic infrastructure that had been destroyed in the war, and was underdeveloped in the first place relative to the north
-Wholesale modernization of the southern way of life
-These governments are surrounded by enemies
----Even before we get to corruption it was already expensive; hopelessly corrupt; tax system makes it feel more expensive; unprecedented sums of money and corporations who are competing with each other for really lucrative favors;
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 17:54:04 GMT view revision history
Faust, "The Civil War Soldier and the Art of Dying" -fashion the way they approach the end of their life out of their understandings of who they are and what matters to them
-CW created a new relationship to death; now there is 'ordinary death" which was prewar type death; and then death in battlefields and camps
-"good death" goal that all men and women should struggle to achieve; representations of good death in pop culture of CW
-Protestant assumptions dominated discourse
-What you are when you die, the same will you reappear in the great day of eternity; how one died thus epitomized a life already led and predicated the quality of life everlasting
-Most distressing part is that thousands of Americans were dying far from home; family members needed to witness a death in order to assess the state of the dying person’s soul, for these critical last moments of life would epitomize his or her spiritual condition.
-Determined not to die alone, soldiers worked to provide themselves with proxies for those who might have been around them at home; pictures of family members; they communicated to these loved ones as they died
-Families learned of death of loved ones in unreliable newspapers lists; just names not the circumstances
-Soldiers would write to each others families, nurses, etc. telling them that they died heroically, would tell of last moments and last words.
-Some managed to write home as they were dying; letters on deathbeds were so similar almost like there was a checklist: conscious of his fate, demonstrated willingness to accept it, showed signs of belief in God, invoked idealized domestic deathbed by leaving messages to those who should have been at his side.
-If no one was around when they died people looked for signs that would reveal the nature of their last moments; physical appearance, expression on face etc.
-“our dead look much more peaceful” than the enemy; showed they were right
-last minute baptisms
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 17:54:04 GMT view revision history
Berlin: Slaves No More -Slaves knew their future was dependent on war's outcome; but N and S didnt want to involve them
-provided occasion for slaves to seize their freedom; three interrelated circumstances shaped the opportunities they had
---character of slave society, course of the war itself, and policies of the union and confederate governments
-south was deeply divided on eve of war; class divisions, slaves or free, labor requirements for crops etc.
-blacks were employed by union and confed as military laborers
-contrabands volunteered for union; but how to handle slaves that escaped from loyal? generals argued
-what social order would take the place of slavery? unclear
-slaves now had dependents, children, elderly etc.
-northern philanthropists went south for poor relief; clothing and food rations provided by employers were frequently less than owners provided
-options; colonization in africa, contraband camps, enlist in military
-military regulation of labor limited employer's sovereignty
-workers exercised "the power to be idle" until planter's met their terms
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 17:54:04 GMT view revision history
Glory (1989 movie) Based on 54th Massachusetts Volunteer infantry;one of the first formal units to be made up entirely of black men; explores racism and discrimination of war 0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 17:54:04 GMT view revision history
McPherson: For Cause and Comrades -brothers on different sides; metaphor of the family divided; mother south father north
-personal aspect but no names;
-dynamic difference between professional army and revolutionary army; discipline, morale
-Letters are representative because from volunteers earlier in the battle
-mostly officers rather than soldiers bc more literate and more dedicated to the cause
-conscience is northern and honor is southern
-duty to founding fathers, cant let union fall apart
-duty to community, duty to protect your family from the south and preserve the union; or duty to protect your family in the south from northern invaders
-ideology; fighting for a cause
-peer pressure to fight with your side even if you were ideologically opposed
-north honor, south for duty; but both were both
-most religious armies in history; dont carry lucky charms but bibles; provide solace; mostly evangelical christians, denomination not mention
-both thought they were defending the constitution
0 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 17:54:04 GMT view revision history
Reconstruction Act of 1867 is what we call radical reconstruction. The Congress that had been battling Johnson, thought they were now strong enough to ignore the president; this act enfranchised African American men in DC, which they had rejected a year before; then the territories, then the south itself. In the beginning they were divided, they not only were in support of enfranchising African Americans but also to bring about a full scale social revolution in the South 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 22:47:02 GMT view revision history
Redemption the completion of redemption was the democratic objective of home rule and the end to the US army’s support of republican governments in the state houses. This was successfully completed in the compromise of the Presidential election of 1876 between Tilden and Hayes. Hayes got the presidency in exchange for redemption. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:29:16 GMT view revision history
Lyman Trumbull was the co-author of the thirteenth amendment and a Senator from Illinois during the Civil War. He was the leading moderate republican in Congress, and the moderates held the balance of power. They were not committed to racial equality but were worried about the expansion of the power of the federal government. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:29:16 GMT view revision history
New York City Draft Riot was a race riot that took place in New York in 1863 with the rise of northern opposition to the war when Congress passed a law drafting men into he Union Army. Initially northerners embraced the war against rebellion with enthusiasm, but after this Lincoln was sensitive to northern racism and postponed the emancipation proclamation as long as he could. Mostly irish hunting down and killing african americans, resulted from impression that the politicians were favoring the rich. 1 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 19:44:10 GMT view revision history
Crop Lien was the solution to the fact that tenant farmers needed credit to get through the year, but didn’t own their own land so couldn’t use it as collateral. The Crop Lien was when store owners gave credit in exchange for the first lien on eh cropper’s half of the crop, the price for this was usually interest on goods 50% higher than you would pay with cash. Store owners, planters, and cotton gin owners were frequently the same people and had the monopoly. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:28:57 GMT view revision history
Tenure of Office Act was passed in Congress to stop Johnson’s purge of republican office holders. The act said that Senate had to approve the firing of anyone who’s appointment had required senate confirmation, this was directed at the cabinet. Johnson had fired everyone but Stanton, Lincoln’s Secretary of War, and this act was aimed specifically at protecting him from Johnson. Johnson fired him anyway in 1868 openly violating the act, which led to his impeachment and trial. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:28:57 GMT view revision history
Thaddeus Stevens a Pennsylvania representative in the House who was a radical republican leader committed to the full suffrage right of African American men and full civil rights for all African Americans. He and Sumner saw reconstruction as the opportunity to reshape the south in the image of the north, a society based on free labor, equal opportunity, education, and the power of the ballot. He also defended greenbacks as they were the currency of the US and they were the peoples money issued to finance the popular struggle. This position was called greenbackers, and defended circulation of greenbacks. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:28:57 GMT view revision history
Credit Mobilier was a scandal in 1872 involving the big four railroad owners and the Union Pacific Railroad. The Credit Mobilier distributed stock to politicians to protect its interests in Washington, and involved many of them in frauds and other forms of corruption, though only one person was expelled from Congress. Both parties were involved and it fits into the Robber Barron railroad story. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:28:08 GMT view revision history
Electoral Commission the commission created by Congress to determine the result of the 1876 Presidential election between Tilden and Hayes. The commission was made up of five senators, five representatives, and five supreme court justices. The plan was to have it evenly split amongst democrats and republicans and then have David Davis of Illinois, a liberal republican, but he was elected to senate and resigned; they chose Bradly a more independent but still Republican justice. They chose in favor of Hayes with the compromise that the military support of Republican governments in the south would end. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:28:08 GMT view revision history
Fifteenth Amendment was ratified in 1870 and prohibits state governments from denying citizens the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. It was one of the Reconstruction amendments after the Civil War. This was sort of hypocritical as the north didn’t enfranchise black men in many northern states with the right to vote. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:28:08 GMT view revision history
Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude as the first of the Reconstruction amendments in 1864. This made evident the Union victory and caused the long term change of southern economy. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:28:08 GMT view revision history
Fort Pillow Massacre was the massacre in 1864 of African American union soldiers that were defending Fort Pillow, Tennessee. The Confederate Nathan Bedford Forest murdered these soldiers who surrendered instead of taking them as prisoners of war. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:27:28 GMT view revision history
Vicksburg was the point in Mississippi that during the Civil war, in 1862, both sides were moving aggressively towards. At this point there was a complete stalemate in the east, major union successes on the coast, and major Union progress in the west toward controlling the Mississippi river. It was a major Union victory and turning point in the war as it was the last Confederate dominated post in the Mississippi River. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:27:28 GMT view revision history
National Banking Acts were two federal laws in the 1860s that established a system of national banks that were based on bank holdings of bank notes, or greenbacks. This was issued during the Civil War in order to promote and support greenbacks so that they could be used to finance the war against the Confederacy. There was a later act that essentially forced all non-federal currency out of circulation through a 10% tax. (?) 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:27:28 GMT view revision history
Granger laws were the state laws regulating the railroads across the Midwest and northwest. In 1877 Munn vs. Illinois, the grange (or farmers) won the battle and got state to regulate the market thereby ending discrimination of freight rates, storage costs, and gambling on the speculative market with grain receipts. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:27:28 GMT view revision history
Slaughterhouse Cases of 1873 were a bunch of specific cases put together in one big decision regarding health regulations of the slaughtering business. It was a landmark decision about regulation in the 20th century that created a monopolistic company to monopolize the slaughtering business so that this company could more easily regulate it, and multiple cities did this. There was debate as it was interpreted that the state was abridging the privileges and immunities of US citizens by barring them from the meat business. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:26:47 GMT view revision history
Hiram Revels was the first African American to serve in the United States Senate, and in the Congress as a whole, and served from 1870-71 representing Mississippi during Reconstruction. After the Republicans suspended their efforts to help maintain black rights in the south, no more African Americans would be able to serve in Congress or any government leadership position. Revels fit into a small window of black enfranchisement during Reconstruction. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:26:47 GMT view revision history
Hugh McCulloch was a Jacksonian banker from Indiana and the treasury secretary who was opposed to greenbacks as he was very wary of paper money. Unfortunately war time inflation made it impossible to trade greenbacks in for gold because they were worth less than face value. By 1867 McCulloch had circulation down and was contracting the money until Congress eventually forced him to stop. It was a debate about what to do. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:26:47 GMT view revision history
Samuel J. Tilden was a railroad layer from New York, who had been governor of New York, and was respected for his career fighting corruption. He brought down Boss Tweed and in his campaign for President, he tried to sell himself as the reformer, however both parties claimed to be the reformer. While he won the popular vote, the electoral vote was contested, and eventually Hayes won after the Congressional negotiations to settle the matter in return for removing militarily supported republican governments in the south. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:26:47 GMT view revision history
William Marcy Tweed was a political machine boss for the democratic party in New York who corrupted the system, intimidated voters at the polls, filled positions based on patronage and essentially controlled New York. He was the reason for the popular demand for Civil Service Reform and was eventually brought down by Samuel J. Tilden, a railroad lawyer from New York. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:26:06 GMT view revision history
Presidential Reconstruction are the reconstruction policies initially started by Lincoln including offering full amnesty (except the right to own slaves) to any white southerner who took an oath of future loyalty to the US and accepted the abolition of slavery as part of the 10% plan. The 14th amendment was passed and Lincoln wanted the ratification by 2/3 of all states not just northern ones. After his assassination, Johnson continued to implement policies, such as the proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction, and before Congress was back in session he declared the end to reconstruction. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:26:06 GMT view revision history
George B. McClellan was a former general and the Democratic candidate nominated for President in 1864 on a platform of anti-war democrats known as copperheads; they were the peace democrats. He campaigned on a platform of racism, wanted to continue the exchange of POWs even though the south wouldn’t return black ones. The democrats stressed race while the republicans stressed loyalty. He lost to Lincoln. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:26:06 GMT view revision history
Grant's Peace Policy the humanitarian policy created by President Grant in 1869 to move Indians to reservations where they would kept from contact with white settlers, where they would be civilized and taught agriculture instead of hunting. It involved the reform of Indian agencies, ended the creation of treaties, and enlisted the help of religious organizations to evangelize Indians, teach them English, and prepare them for ultimate citizenship. It ultimately was a disaster as the real decisions were made by the citizens of the west and the army thereby dooming the policy. Parallels to reconstruction. Also established a board of philanthropic businessmen to oversee indian affairs in the west, but it failed as the corrupted agencies overrode their decisions and they ultimately quit. 1 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 02:05:49 GMT view revision history
Emancipation Proclamation was the freeing of slaves in confederate states by Lincoln’s executive order. It is what caused the public to think of the war as a war on slavery and a moral war, before that it was about keeping the Union together; because of northern racism Lincoln postponed it as long as he could and it was initially unpopular in the north. It resulted from the pressure of abolitionists and because the slaves forced him to. 1862 1 kellymac12 Sun, 12 Dec 2010 02:45:43 GMT view revision history
Pennsylvania Railroad as a railroad company was one of the first big businesses in the United States and was in important part of an industrial class conflict in the 1870s as the “robber baron” railroad owners strategized to combine their economic resources to put down worker strikes and prevent union formations; workers had no real rights or protections. During the strikes railroad companies had to call in the militia to end them as local police frequently sides with the strikers; during this riot many people were injured/killed and 2,000 rail cars were destroyed. The system builder story is another contributor to the success of the railroads, as they invented the org chart and the use of data to manage a company. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:25:13 GMT view revision history
Fourteenth Amendment is the amendment resulting from the Civil War that protects an individuals rights of citizenship from being denied by the state, especially due process. The confederate debt was repudiated but Union debt was respected. Additionally, this was applied later not to defending the rights of african americans but to protect businesses from state regulation (1870s); labor laws, pollution controls, etc. 2 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 22:42:13 GMT view revision history
54th Massachusetts was one of the first all balck infantries during the Civil War and fought on behalf of the Union. It was made up of freed slaves, or contrabands, that escaped from their masters to join the war effort. The fact that these African Americans took control of their own destiny helped to free them, and truly made the Civil War a war over slavery. Their white officers had a range of views, but blacks saw it as a link to citizenship. 1 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 19:19:23 GMT view revision history
Bounty system was a system used of paying cash bonuses to entice enlistees into the Union and Confederate armies, but the system was much abused. During the Civil War a person could hire a substitute to serve for them, but these substitutes would sometimes take the money and not serve the time. It gave people too much choice in the matter so the South started the draft. 2 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 19:42:04 GMT view revision history
Twenty Negro Law was a confederate law that exempted the owners or overseers of twenty or more slaves from confederate military service during the Civil War. (?) 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:24:31 GMT view revision history
Contrabands were the African Americans that escaped from their owners and came to Union camps to help in the war effort. Some Union leaders organized these black men into regiments, while others treated them with great cruelty and would not let them behind their lines. The fact that these African Americans took control of their own destiny helped to free them, and truly made the Civil War a war about slavery. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:24:31 GMT view revision history
Wade-Davis Bill was a bill in early 1864 that wasn’t passed that involved a stricter approach to give amnesty to southerners loyal to the Union. This would delay the formation of a new state government until ½ of the white male population qualified to vote pledged their loyalty by taking an oath, at which point they could call a constitutional convention. Those that would be given the right to vote would be restricted to a smaller group who took the iron-clad oath pledging that they had never voluntarily aided nor supported the confederacy. The iron-clad oath was seen as either forcing humiliation or lying. Lincoln pocket vetoed this bill. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:24:31 GMT view revision history
Stephen J. Field was a prominent judge in the Slaughter House Cases of 1873 which were in regard to the health regulations of the slaughtering business, which was a landmark economic regulation in the 19th century. Field was a dissenter and believed that the sanitary regulation was just a shallow pretense for giving away an exclusive privilege to political cronies which he considered to be un-republican. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:23:45 GMT view revision history
Munn v. Illinois was a court case that took place in 1877 about Illinois Granger laws, which were the laws regulating the railroads. After buying and selling warehouse receipts became a speculative market, the farmers demanded that the state regulate this market, that max storage charges be set by law, and that there be bans on speculation in grain future on the floor of the exchange (gambling). A board of railroad and warehouse commissioners was established to eliminate the discrimination in freight rates, and enforce storage prices and other decisions 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:23:45 GMT view revision history
5-20s were long term bonds that were paid with 6% interest, and redeemable between five and twenty years after purchase. Loans like these were two-thirds of the Union financing during the Civil War and were sold to ordinary people in small denominations. As the war went on, more and more of these bonds were concentrated in the hands of spectators, some foreign, hoping to profit and redeem them for gold instead of greenbacks. This led to the Pendleton Plan. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:23:45 GMT view revision history
Oliver O. Howard was a Union soldier during the Civil War then became the head of the Freeman’s Bureau created to oversee Reconstruction in the south. Although the Freedman’s Bureau ultimately failed as a result of it’s inadequate funding, it served to protect the new rights of freed slaves after the war, such as settling them on their own land, representing them in court, providing aid, etc. 0 kellymac12 Sat, 11 Dec 2010 03:23:45 GMT view revision history

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