ch. 12 - teaching by fostering problem-solving strategies Flash Cards

 
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four guiding principles of thinking skills instruction 1) focus on well-defined skills
2) contextualize within authentic tasks
3) personalize the skills
4) accelerate the skills so that students learn them along with lower level skills
0 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 04:30:28 GMT view revision history
prior automatization theory vs constraint removal theory (when to teach) prior automatization:
- after lower level skills are taught
- lower-levels skills should be automatized

constraint removal:
- while lower level skills are being mastered
- teacher has to scaffold task and remove some constraints
- focus should be here!
0 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 04:30:28 GMT view revision history
apprenticeship - beginners work with experienced practitioners on authentic tasks
- assisted performance
0 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 04:30:28 GMT view revision history
process vs product (how to teach) process:
- how to go about solving a problem
- modeling technique - model your problem-solving strategy after others who successfully solve things
- focus should be here!

product:
- getting the right answer
0 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 04:30:28 GMT view revision history
g-factor & s-factor in spearman's tests on intelligence...
- g-factor - all tests correlated with one another --> general aspects of intelligence
- s-factor - cetain clusters of tests correlated well --> specific aspects of intelligence

- intelligence may be domain-specific (cognitive skills that are useful in one area - writing an essay being different from solving a math problem)
0 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 04:04:34 GMT view revision history
intelligence as specific or general (where to teach) specific:
- perform well mainly on applying specific strategies to problems like those given in training
- expertise is highly domain-specific
- focus should be here!

general:
- learn general problem-solving strategies that can be applied to a wide variety of tasks
- tests measuring the same skill (memory, learning) should correlate with one another
1 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 04:06:00 GMT view revision history
polya's teaching of problem solving - students should be asked to solve problems and to observe others solve problems
- emphasis on problem solving, not the final answer

four steps for solving problems:
- understand the problem
- devise a plan
- carry out the plan
- look back
0 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 03:59:42 GMT view revision history
two major kinds of cognitive processing 1) representational - build a coherent and useful internal representation of the problem

2) solution - create, carry out, and monitor a plan
0 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 03:59:42 GMT view revision history
single intelligence theory vs cognitive skills theory (what to teach) single intelligence:
- humans possess a single intellectual ability

cognitive skills:
- humans possess many smaller skills that together count for a person's cognitive ability
- focus should be here!
1 jeanknee Sun, 05 Dec 2010 04:04:50 GMT view revision history

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