Biology chapter 17 Flash Cards

 
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Generally speaking, which of the following mutations would most severely affect the protein coded for by a gene? a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Each of the following options is a What is the effect of a nonsense mutation in a gene? It introduces a premature stop codon into the mRNA. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Which of the following types of mutation, resulting in an error in the mRNA just after the AUG start of translation, is likely to have the most serious effect on the polypeptide product? a deletion of 2 nucleotides 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Why might a point mutation in DNA make a difference in the level of protein's activity? It might substitute an amino acid in the active site. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein, which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred? An addition mutation and a deletion mutation. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein? Two 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)? One addition and one deletion mutation. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has occurred? deletion 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Which of the following statements about mutations is false? A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid. false 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
A transfer RNA (#1) attached to the amino acid lysine enters the ribosome. The lysine binds to the growing polypeptide on the other tRNA (#2) in the ribosome already.


Where does tRNA #2 move to after this bonding of lysine to the polypeptide
E site 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Choose the answer that has these events of protein synthesis in the proper sequence.
1. An aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the A site.
2. A peptide bond forms between the new amino acid and a polypeptide chain.
3. tRNA leaves the P site, and the P site remains vacant.
4. A small ribosomal subunit binds with mRNA.
5. tRNA translocates to the P site.
4, 1, 2, 5, 3 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
There are 61 mRNA codons that specify an amino acid, but only 45 tRNAs. This is best explained by the fact that the rules for base pairing between the third base of a codon and tRNA are flexible. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Accuracy in the translation of mRNA into the primary structure of a polypeptide depends on specificity in the bonding of the anticodon to the codon, and the attachment of amino acids to tRNAs 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site. P 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____. CUG 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA? aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
True or false. A tRNA with an anticodon complementary to the stop codon catalyzes the reaction by which translation is terminated. false 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
What is meant by translocation? The ribosome slides one codon down the mRNA. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
At which site do new aminoacyl tRNAs enter the ribosome during elongation? A-site 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Which of the following steps occurs last in the initiation phase of translation? The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Which of the following processes is an example of a post-translational modification? Phosphorylation 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Which nucleic acid is translated to make a protein? mRNA 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Where does translation take place? ribosome 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
A mutation in which of the following parts of a gene is likely to be most damaging to a cell? exon 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Once transcribed, eukaryotic mRNA typically undergoes substantial alteration that includes excision of introns. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Translation occurs in the _____. cytoplasm 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____. exons 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Spliceosomes are composed of _____. snRNPs and other proteins 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA. a long string of adenine nucleotides 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA. modified guanine nucleotide 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
RNA polymerase moves in which direction along the DNA? 3' to 5' along the template strand 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
In which of the following actions does RNA polymerase differ from DNA polymerase? RNA polymerase can initiate RNA synthesis, but DNA polymerase requires a primer to initiate DNA synthesis. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____. 5' to 3' 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene? It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand? Complementary 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription? Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene? The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter? A nontranscribed sequence on the DNA 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following? Organelles 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy? transcription 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
A particular triplet of bases in the template strand of DNA is 5' AGT 3'. The corresponding codon for the mRNA transcribed is 3' UCA 5' 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Using RNA as a template for protein synthesis instead of translating proteins directly from the DNA is advantageous for the cell because RNA acts as an expendable copy of the genetic material. 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____. mRNA 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
Polypeptides are assembled from _____. amino acids 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA? RNA processing 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein? translation 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:53 GMT view revision history
What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA? transcription 0 htyrpak Wed, 24 Nov 2010 20:53:52 GMT view revision history

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