Chap. 22 Flash Cards

 
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6) Which of the following pairs of structures is least likely to represent homology? D) The wings of a bird and those of an insect 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
5) DNA sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees. The most likely explanation for this result is that A) humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
4) Within a few weeks of treatment with the drug 3TC, a patient's HIV population consists entirely of 3TC-resistant viruses. How can this result best be explained? D) A few drug-resistant viruses were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
3) Which of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification? D) South American temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
2) The upper forelimbs of humans and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, whereas the corresponding bones in whales have very different shapes and proportions. However, genetic data suggest that all three kinds of organisms diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for these data? C) Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
1) Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based? B) Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
51) The theory of evolution is most accurately described as D) an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
50) Monkeys of South and Central America have prehensile tails, meaning that their tails can be used to grasp objects. The tails of African and Asian monkeys are not prehensile. Which discipline is most likely to provide an evolutionary explanation for how this difference in tails came about? B) Biogeography 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
49) It has been observed that organisms on islands are different from, but closely related to, similar forms found on the nearest continent. This is taken as evidence that A) island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
47) Members of two different species possess a similar-looking structure that they use in a similar fashion to perform the same function. Which information would best help distinguish between an explanation based on homology versus one based on convergent evolution? B) The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that code for these proteins are almost identical. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
46) Which of the following statements most detracts from the claim that the human appendix is a completely vestigial organ? C) The appendix has a substantial amount of defensive lymphatic tissue. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
45) Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree? E) Relationships between DNA sequences among the species did not match relationships between skeletal patterns. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
44) Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth? B) All organisms use essentially the same genetic code. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
43) Over evolutionary time, many cave-dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their hind limbs. How can natural selection account for these losses? C) Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
41) If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that B) they should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
37) DDT was once considered a "silver bullet" that would permanently eradicate insect pests. Today, instead, DDT is largely useless against many insects. Which of these would have been required for this pest eradication effort to be successful in the long run? D) None of the individual insects should have possessed genomes that made them resistant to DDT 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
36) Which statement best describes the evolution of pesticide resistance in a population of insects? D) Offspring of insects that are genetically resistant to the pesticide become more abundant as the susceptible insects die off. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
35) In a hypothetical environment, fishes called pike-cichlids are visual predators of algae-eating fish (i.e., they locate their prey by sight). If a population of algae-eaters experiences predation pressure from pike-cichlids, which of the following should least likely be observed in the algae-eater population over the course of many generations? C) Selection for larger female algae-eaters, bearing broods composed of more, and larger, young 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
34) Evolutionary trees such as this are properly understood by scientists to be B) hypotheses. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
33) Which pair would probably have agreed with the process that is depicted by this tree? B) Lamarck and Wallace 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
27) Which of Darwin's ideas had the strongest connection to Darwin having read Malthus's essay on human population growth? C) Struggle for existence 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
26) Which of the following must exist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population? A) Genetic variation among individuals 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
25) Which of the following statements is an inference of natural selection? A) Subsequent generations of a population should have greater proportions of individuals that possess traits better suited for success in unchanging environments. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
24) During drought years on the Galapagos, small, easily eaten seeds become rare, leaving mostly large, hard-cased seeds that only birds with large beaks can eat. If a drought persists for several years, what should one expect to result from natural selection? D) More small-beaked birds dying than larger-beaked birds. The offspring produced in subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds with large beaks. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
23) If the HMS Beagle had completely bypassed the Galapagos Islands, Darwin would have had a much poorer understanding of the B) ability of populations to undergo modification as they adapt to a particular environment. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection?
1. Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring than do poorly adapted individuals.
2. A change occurs in the environment.
3. Genetic frequencies within the population change.
4. Poorly adapted individuals have decreased survivorship.
A) 2 → 4 → 1 → 3 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
18) Which of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of Thomas Malthus? D) Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the next generation's gene pool, than do poorly adapted individuals. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
17) Natural selection is based on all of the following except E) individuals adapt to their environments and, thereby, evolve. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
16) Which of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time? A) All variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
15) In Darwin's thinking, the more closely related two different organisms are, the C) more recently they shared a common ancestor. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
14) Charles Darwin was the first person to propose D) a mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
13) Which of these naturalists synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin? C) Alfred Wallace 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
12) As a young biologist, Charles Darwin had expected the living plants of temperate South America would resemble those of temperate Europe, but he was surprised to find that they more closely resembled the plants of tropical South America. The biological explanation for this observation is most properly associated with the field of E) biogeography. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
11) Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earth's ancient age? B) Charles Lyell 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
10) Which pair would have been likely to agree that strata such as those depicted here were deposited gradually over long periods of time by subtle mechanisms that are still at work? E) Hutton and Lyell 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
9) Who would have proposed that the boundaries between each stratum mark the occurrence of different localized floods? B) Cuvier 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
6) In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko believed that his winter wheat plants, exposed to ever-colder temperatures, would eventually give rise to ever more cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lysenko's attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of C) Lamarck. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
5) Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are fixed (i.e., unchanging)? D) Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuvier 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
4) During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student's misconception? A) Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
3) What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin? A) Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
2) Which of the events described below agrees with the idea of catastrophism? D) The sudden demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large extraterrestrial body with Earth 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history
1) Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of B) the fossil record. 0 rgizaw Sat, 24 Apr 2010 03:33:38 GMT view revision history

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