anatomy 11/20 Flash Cards

 
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pneumotaxic center ~inhibitory to both respiration and the apneustic center
~influence the breathing rate by modifying the activity of the respiratory rhythmicity center.
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:45:50 GMT view revision history
apneustic center ~housed in the pons
~center stimulates the inspiratory center in the medulla
~influence the breathing rate by modifying the activity of the respiratory rhythmicity center.
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:45:50 GMT view revision history
ventral respiratory group (VRG) control forced exhalation 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:43:48 GMT view revision history
dorsal respiratory group (DRG) controls inhalation by stimulating muscles of inspiration 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:43:48 GMT view revision history
The respiratory rhythmicity center in the medulla oblongata controls the rate and depth of breathing 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:43:48 GMT view revision history
pulmonary plexus ~formed by the Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers
~a weblike network of nerve fibers that surrounds the primary bronchi and enter the lungs at the hilum
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:43:48 GMT view revision history
Breathing, also known as pulmonary ventilation:is the movement of air into and out of the respiratory system 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:42:02 GMT view revision history
Muscles attached to ribs that aid in lateral and anterior/posterior changes of the ribs 1.Scalenes
2.External intercostal
3.Internal intercostal
4.Transverse thoracis
5.Serratus posterior superior
6.Serratus posterior inferior
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:42:02 GMT view revision history
during respiration the thoracic cavity changes in these dimensions dimensions:
1.Vertical – movement of the diaphragm
2.Lateral – muscles attached to ribs
3.Anterior/Posterior – muscles attached to ribs
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:42:02 GMT view revision history
bronchial circulation is a component of the systemic circulation that delivers blood directly to and from the bronchi and bronchioles 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:35:13 GMT view revision history
pulmonary circulation ) conducts blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:35:13 GMT view revision history
Bronchopulmonary Segments 10 segments in the right lung, 8-10 in the left.
~Each segment is supplied by its own tertiary bronchus and a branch of a pulmonary artery and vein and is surrounded by and isolated from other segments by connective tissue
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:35:13 GMT view revision history
Right Lung ~Has two fissures, oblique and horizontal fissures that divide the lung into three lobes (superior, middle and inferior lobes) 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:02 GMT view revision history
lingula homologous to the middle lobe of the right lung (on the left lung) 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:02 GMT view revision history
cardiac notch an anterior indented region on the left lung 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:02 GMT view revision history
cardiac impression the medial surface indentation the heart makes on the left lung 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:02 GMT view revision history
Left Lung ~Slightly smaller than right lung because heart projects slightly to the left of midline
~Has an oblique fissure that divides the lung into two lobes (superior and inferior lobes)
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:02 GMT view revision history
root of the lung all structures within the hilum 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:02 GMT view revision history
Hilum (Lung) A concave region that houses the mediastinal surface of the lung 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:02 GMT view revision history
Lungs ~Conical in shape, has a base inferiorly that rests on the diaphragm and an apex that is the superior most portion of the lung 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:01 GMT view revision history
pleural cavity the space in between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:01 GMT view revision history
Parietal pleura lines the pleural cavity itself 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:01 GMT view revision history
Visceral pleura tightly adheres to the outside of the lung 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:30:01 GMT view revision history
pleura the serous membrane that lines the outer surface of the lung and The pleural cavities 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:20:05 GMT view revision history
Alveolar Macrophages (dust cell), engulfs any microorganism or particulate matter that makes its way into the alveolus 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:20:05 GMT view revision history
Respiratory Membrane consists of the following: 1.The plasma membrane of the type I alveolar cell
2.The plasma membrane of the capillary cell
3.The fused basement membrane of both cells
**layers that the gas have to get through
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:20:05 GMT view revision history
what is the Respiratory Membrane It is the diffusion barrier across which respiratory gases are exchanged between the blood and the air in the alveoli 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:20:05 GMT view revision history
pulmonary surfactant decreases surface tension within the alveolus and prevents the collapse of alveoli 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:14:09 GMT view revision history
alveolar wall is formed from which two types of cells 1.Alveolar type I cells:promote rapid diffusion of gases
2.Alveolar type II cells :produces pulmonary surfactant
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:14:09 GMT view revision history
respiratory portion of the respiratory system consists of: 1.Respiratory bronchioles
2.Alveolar ducts
3.Pulmonary alveoli
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:14:09 GMT view revision history
Bronchioles ~are less than 1 mm in diameter
~walls are composed of a relatively thick layer of smooth muscle (Contraction causes bronchoconstriction and vice versa)
~Bronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:05:16 GMT view revision history
how the Bronchiole Tree brances 1.trachea branches into left and right primary bronchi
2.right primary bronchus divides into three secondary bronchi & left primary bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi
3.The secondary bronchi divide into 8-10 tertiary bronchi (segmental
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:05:15 GMT view revision history
Bronchiole Tree ~is a highly branched system of air-conducting passages that begin with the primary bronchi and end with the terminal bronchi
~These passages belong to the conducting portion of the respiratory system
They reside within the substance of the lungs
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:05:15 GMT view revision history
Trachea ~2.5 cm in diameter and 12-14 cm in length
~Supported by C-shaped tracheal cartilages
~Posteriorly, the ends of the tracheal cartilages are connected by the trachealis muscle
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 01:05:15 GMT view revision history
glottis The vocal folds plus the rima glottidis 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:57:51 GMT view revision history
rima glottidis The opening between the vocal folds 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:57:51 GMT view revision history
Sound Production ~Vocal folds are found in larynx and are comprised of vocal ligaments covered by a mucous membrane
~When air is forced through the rima glottidis, it causes vibration of the vocal folds which results in the production of sound
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:57:51 GMT view revision history
Minor Cartilages of the Larynx ~important role in sound production
1.Arytenoid cartilages
2.Corniculate cartilages
3.Cuneiform cartilages
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:57:51 GMT view revision history
Epiglottis ~Spoon-shaped cartilage that projects superiorly into pharynx
~Swallowing causes the epiglottis to close the opening to the larynx thus preventing materials from entering the lower respiratory tract
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Cricoid Cartilage Just inferior to the thyroid cartilage
Complete ring shaped cartilage
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laryngeal prominence (Adam’s Apple) V-shaped anterior projection in the thyroid cartilage 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:50:53 GMT view revision history
Thyroid Cartilage ~Largest cartilage
~Has an anterior and lateral wall
No posterior wall
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three major cartilages of the larynx 1.Thyroid cartilage
2.Cricoid cartilage
3.Epiglottis
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Larynx ~Connects pharynx to trachea
~called the voice box
~Supported by a framework of cartilages, ligaments and muscles
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:50:53 GMT view revision history
Lower Respiratory Tract (Respiratory) is comprised of Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveoli
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:50:53 GMT view revision history
lower respiratory tract (Conducting) is comprised of 1.Larynx
2.Trachea
3.Bronchi
4.Bronchioles
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fauces The opening of the oral cavity into the oropharynx 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:50:53 GMT view revision history
Oropharynx ~Begins at the end of the soft palate and ends at the level of the hyoid bone
~palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral wall in between the arches
~lingual tonsils are at the base of the tongue
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:50:53 GMT view revision history
Nasopharynx Continuous with the nasal cavity and superior to the soft palate
~opening of the auditory tubes are found in the lateral walls
~posterior nasopharynx wall houses a single pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:50:53 GMT view revision history
Pharynx ~two organ systems (digestive and respiratory)
three regions:
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx
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paranasal sinuses. ~Four bones of the skull contain paired air spaces
~1Frontal
2.Ethmoidal
3.Sphenoidal
4.Maxillary
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superior, middle and inferior conchae form the lateral wall for each cavity
~condition the air within the nasal cavity
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nasal septum divides the nasal cavity into right and left portions and forms the medial wall of each cavity 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:31:41 GMT view revision history
choanae an openings to the nasopharynx 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:31:41 GMT view revision history
Nasal Cavity begins as the internal component of the nose and ends as openings to the nasopharynx 0 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 00:31:41 GMT view revision history
Nose ~is the main conducting airway for inhaled air
~supported by paired nasal bones superiorly
~supported anteroinferiorly from the bridge by the fleshy, cartilaginous dorsum nasi
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:54:36 GMT view revision history
upper respiratory tract is comprised of 1.Nose and nasal cavities
2.Paranasal sinuses
3.Pharynx
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:54:36 GMT view revision history
Division of the Respiratory System the system can be divided into upper and lower respiratory tracts
Functionally: the system can be divided into a conducting and respiratory portions
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:54:36 GMT view revision history
Functions of the Respiratory System 1.Gas conditioning
2.Sound production
3.Olfaction
4.Defense
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:54:36 GMT view revision history
Thymus ~Located just superior to the heart and just deep to the sternum
~Larger in infants and children than in adults
~Functions in association with the lymphatic system to regulate and maintain body immunity
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:07:05 GMT view revision history
Pineal Gland ~Secretes melatonin
~It is located in the posterior region of the epithalamus
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:07:05 GMT view revision history
Pancreatic Islets ( types) 1.Alpha cells – secrete glucagon
2.Beta cells – secrete insulin
3.Delta cells – secrete somatostatin
4.F cells – secrete pancreatic polypeptide
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:05:26 GMT view revision history
Pancreas ~Located between the duodenum and spleen and posterior to the stomach
~About 98-99% of pancreatic cells are pancreatic acini, rest is endocrine cells called pancreatic islets
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:05:26 GMT view revision history
Adrenal Medulla ~Forms the inner core of the adrenal gland
~Consists of chromaffin cells
----~These cells secrete norepinephrine and epinephrine
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:05:26 GMT view revision history
Adrenal Cortex layers of cells 1.Zona glomerulosa – produce mineralocorticoids, the main one being aldosterone
2.Zona fasciculata – produce glucocorticoids, the main one being corticosterone
3.Zona reticularis – produce the sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone related hormones
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 23:05:26 GMT view revision history
Adrenal Glands ~Paired glands anchored on the superior border of the two kidneys (suprarenal glands) 0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 22:47:53 GMT view revision history
Chief cells (principal cells) ~secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) that helps regulate serum calcium 0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 22:47:53 GMT view revision history
Parathyroid Glands ~Small glands (usually four) embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
~two types of cells:Chief cells (principal cells) & Oxyphil cells
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 22:47:53 GMT view revision history
Parafollicular Cells ~Large endocrine cells located between thyroid follicles
~Secrete calcitonin which helps to regulate serum calcium
0 mi6967 Sun, 22 Nov 2009 22:47:52 GMT view revision history
Thyroid Gland ~The largest gland entirely devoted to endocrine activities
~Located just inferior to the thyroid cartilage and anterior to the trachea
~Butterfly in shape with right and left lobes connected by a midline isthmus
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 22:23:40 GMT view revision history
hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract Neural connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary 0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 22:23:40 GMT view revision history
Posterior Pituitary ~Derived from the embryonic diencephalon
~Comprised of the following regions:
1.Pars nervosa
2.Infundibular stalk
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 22:23:40 GMT view revision history
The seven major hormones secreted from the anterior pituitary: 1.Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
2.Prolactin (PRL)
3.Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)
4.Growth hormone (GH) – also called somatotropin
5.Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
6.Lutenizing hormone (LH)
7.Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 22:23:40 GMT view revision history
hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system the blood vessel network where regulatory hormones travel from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary 0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 22:23:40 GMT view revision history
Anterior Pituitary ~Also known as the adenohypophysis
~divided into three distinct areas:
1.)Pars distalis
2.)Pars intermedia
3.)Pars tuberalis
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 22:23:40 GMT view revision history
infundibulum how The pituitary gland Connectes to the hypothalamus ( thin stalk) 0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 21:52:18 GMT view revision history
Pituitary Gland ~Also called the hypophysis
~Divided into anterior and posterior lobes
~Housed within the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 21:52:18 GMT view revision history
Hypothalamic Control of the Endocrine System ~is the interface between the nervous system and the endocrine system and is the master gland of the endocrine system
~It controls and oversees most endocrine functions
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 21:52:18 GMT view revision history
three ways The hypothalamus controls most endocrine activity 1.Controlling release of regulatory hormones from the anterior pituitary gland
2.Secretion of oxytocin (OT) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland
3.Controls the stimulation and secretion activities of the adrenal medulla
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 21:52:18 GMT view revision history
Positive Feedback Loop ~Only a few examples in the human body
In this type of loop, the stimulus doesn’t produce an opposite and counteracting effect like a negative feedback loop.
~The stimulus accelerates the process
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 20:50:13 GMT view revision history
Negative Feedback Loop ~In this type of loop, the stimulus starts the process like an elevation in blood glucose (eating a meal)
~The hormone secreted in response to elevated glucose is insulin
~Insulin brings about a decrease in blood glucose
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 20:50:13 GMT view revision history
two types of feedback loops 1.Negative feedback loop
2.Positive feedback loop
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 20:50:13 GMT view revision history
feedback loop The self-adjusting mechanism that regulates hormone secretion 0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 20:40:15 GMT view revision history
endocrinology The study of the structural components of the endocrine system, the hormones they produce and the effects of these hormones on target organs is termed this 0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 20:40:15 GMT view revision history
The classes and an example of horomones... 1.Peptide hormones – growth hormone
2.Steroid hormones -- estrogen
3.Biogenic amines – thyroid hormone
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hormones informational molecules produced by Endocrine glands
~can only affect cells (target cells) or organs (target organs) that have receptors for a specific hormone
0 mi6967 Sat, 21 Nov 2009 20:40:15 GMT view revision history
Blood cells can easily enter and leave the blood stream in the spleen because of.... the discontinuous basal lamina of the capillaries in the splenic sinusoids 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:36:17 GMT view revision history
The white pulp ~is associated with the arterial supply and consists of T and B-lymphocytes and macrophages 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:36:17 GMT view revision history
Red pulp surrounds each cluster of white pulp
~associated with the venous supply
~*consists of splenic cords and splenic sinusoids that contain erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages and some plasma cells
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:36:17 GMT view revision history
Cells around the trabeculae are subdivided into... white pulp and red pulp
~*~In the center of each cluster is a central artery
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Trabecular vessels (branches of splenic arteries and veins) extend within the trabeculae 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:36:17 GMT view revision history
Spleen ~Largest lymphatic organ in body just lateral to left kidney
~A splenic artery/vein enter/leave the spleen via a hilum or indentation on its medial surface
~Spleen surrounded by a dense irregular connective tissue capsule which sends extensions called trabeculae into the organ
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:36:17 GMT view revision history
functions of the spleen: 1.)Initiates an immune response when antigens are found in blood (white pulp function)
2.)Serves as a reservoir for erythrocytes and platelets (red pulp function)
3.)Phagocytizes old, defective erythrocytes and platelets (red pulp function)
4.)Phagocytizes bacteria and other foreign materials
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:36:17 GMT view revision history
hilum The indentation of the lymph node where lymph exits via efferent vessels 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:36:17 GMT view revision history
The medulla contains... medullary cords and medullary sinuses 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:36:17 GMT view revision history
cortical sinuses Cortex consists of nodules and sinuses called this 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
Lymph node is divided into... outer cortex and inner medulla 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
Structure of Lymph Nodes ~Surrounded by a tough connective tissue capsule
~Internal extensions of the capsule, trabeculae, project into the node
~Lymphatic cells surround the trabeculae and lymphatic sinuses provide a pathway for lymph flow
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
the Most apparent lymph node clusters occur as... 1.Axillary lymph nodes
2.Inguinal lymph nodes
3.Cervical lymph nodes
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What is The primary function of a lymph node? to filter antigens from the lymph and initiate an immune response 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
Lymph Nodes ~Small, round or oval structures located along the pathway of lymph vessels
~Typically found in clusters ranging from 1-25mm in diameter
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
Function of Thymus ~Site of T-lymphocyte differentiation and maturation
---*Cortex contains immature T-lymphocytes
---*Medulla contains mature T-lymphocytes
~In adulthood, T-lymphocytes can only be produced by cell division and not by the maturation of new cells in the thymus
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
What is the Thymus replaced by in adults? mostly by adipose connective tissue 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
Thymus ~Bilobed organ located superficial to the heart
~Consists of two fused thymic lobes which are divided into lobules
----Each lobule has an outer cortex and an inner medulla
**Continues to grow until puberty and then begins to regress in size and function and ,in adults, it becomes replaced mostly by adipose connective tissue
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
Lymphatic Organs and what are the main ones? ~Consists of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix and is completely surrounded by a connective tissue capsule
~The main lymphatic organs are:
1.Thymus
2.Lymph nodes
3.Spleen
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
three types of tonsils and there location 1.Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) – located in the posterosuperior wall of the nasopharynx
2.Palatine tonsils – located in the posterolateral wall of the oral cavity
3.Lingual tonsils – located along the posterior one-third of the tongue
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
Tonsils ~Located mainly in the pharynx
~Large clusters of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix that do not have a completed surrounding capsule
~Outer edges are invaginated to form crypts which allow for trapping of antigens to be presented to the lymphocytes
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:30:16 GMT view revision history
Peyer patches. The MALT nodules that are very prominent in the ileum 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:22:18 GMT view revision history
MALT ~Lymphatic nodules located in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genital and urinary tracts
--*monitor and respond to antigens that may enter these tracts
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what does MALT stand for? Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:22:18 GMT view revision history
germinal center The center of the Lymphatic nodule
--*. It contains proliferating B-lymphocytes and macrophages
**T-lymphocytes are located on the outside
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Lymphatic Nodules ~Oval clusters of lymphatic cells with some extracellular matrix but NOT surrounded by a connective tissue capsule
--*filter and attack antigens
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:22:18 GMT view revision history
Where do All lymphocytes originate in? the red bone marrow but their maturation sites differ 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:22:18 GMT view revision history
immunocompetent meaning the cell can participate in the immune response
--*Is The final result of lymphopoiesis
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Lymphopoiesis is the process of lymphocyte development 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:22:18 GMT view revision history
NK (Natural Killer) Cells ~Also called large granular lymphocytes
~Relatively small percentage of all lymphocytes
~Tend to express the CD16 receptors
~*Unlike T-cells and B-cells that respond to one antigen, NK cells can kill a wide variety of infected cells and some cancerous cells
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:17:05 GMT view revision history
The long-lived B-lymphocytes are called ...memory B-lymphocytes and confer years or lifetime immunity to certain antigens 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:17:05 GMT view revision history
plasma cells ~activated B-lymphocytes,that produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies
~either short-lived (less than a week) or long-lived (months or years)
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:17:05 GMT view revision history
B-Lymphocytes ~15-30% of body lymphocytes
~Contain antigen receptors to only one antigen and produce immunoglobins or antibodies to that single antigen
~become activated when presented with an antigen from a helper T-lymphocyte
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:17:05 GMT view revision history
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes ~Also called CD8+ or T8 cells contain the CD8 coreceptor
~Come in direct contact with infected or foreign cells and kill them
~Acts only after it is activated by a helper T-lymphocyte that presents an antigen to it
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:09:57 GMT view revision history
T4 cells: ~Many types of T4 cells, each one responds to a different antigen
~T4 cells initiate and oversee the immune response in two ways:
1.)Presenting the antigen to other lymphocytes
2.)Secrete cytokines which are hormones that activate other lymphatic cells
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:09:57 GMT view revision history
Helper T-Lymphocytes ~Primarily contain the CD4 coreceptor and are referred to as CD4+ cells or T4 cells
~
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:09:57 GMT view revision history
The main two groups of T-lymphocytes. 1.)Helper T-lymphocytes
2.)Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:04:07 GMT view revision history
T-Lymphocytes ~70-85% of body lymphocytes
~express a plasma membrane coreceptor (CD) that can recognize a particular antigen
~groups:Helper T-lymphocytes &
Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:04:06 GMT view revision history
three types of lymphocytes within the body... 1.T-lymphocytes (T-cells)
2.B-lymphocytes (B-cells)
3.NK cells

**They migrate through the lymphatic system and search for the presence of antigens
1 mi6967 Mon, 23 Nov 2009 05:24:47 GMT view revision history
types of lymphatic cells that are located in the lymphatic and circulatory systems 1.Macrophages
2.Nurse cells
3.Dendritic cells
4.Lymphocytes
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 16:04:06 GMT view revision history
what is the largest lymphatic vessel? The thoracic duct 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:59:29 GMT view revision history
The right lymphatic duct is located... deep to the right clavicle and returns lymph at the junction of the right subclavian and internal jugular veins 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:59:29 GMT view revision history
The right lymphatic duct returns lymph from... the right side of the head and neck, right upper limb and the right side of the thorax 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:59:29 GMT view revision history
Lymphatic ducts are formed from... the fusion of lymphatic trunks 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:59:29 GMT view revision history
. Each trunk drains lymph from a specific region of the body:
Lumbar trunks
lower limbs, abdominopelvic wall and pelvic organs 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:57:59 GMT view revision history
. Each trunk drains lymph from a specific region of the body:
Intestinal trunks
– most abdominal structures 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:57:59 GMT view revision history
. Each trunk drains lymph from a specific region of the body:
Bronchiomediastinal trunks
– deep thoracic structures 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:57:59 GMT view revision history
. Each trunk drains lymph from a specific region of the body:
Subclavian trunks
upper limbs, breasts and superficial thoracic wall 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:57:59 GMT view revision history
. Each trunk drains lymph from a specific region of the body:
Jugular trunks
head and neck 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:57:59 GMT view revision history
what transport filtered lymph away from the lymph node Efferent lymphatic vessels 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:55:08 GMT view revision history
what brings lymph to a lymph node Afferent lymphatic vessels 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:55:08 GMT view revision history
Lymphatic capillaries merge to form lymphatic vessels 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:55:08 GMT view revision history
chyle The lymph collected from the gastrointestinal system has a milky color due to the lipid absorption and is called this 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:55:08 GMT view revision history
lacteals specialized lymph capillaries that are in The gastrointestinal tract 0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:55:08 GMT view revision history
Lymphatic capillaries are closed-ended tubes that are found interspersed among most blood capillary beds
---They resemble blood capillaries but they have overlapping endothelial cells that act as one way valves allowing interstitial fluid a one-way entrance into lymphatic capillaries
1 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:49:31 GMT view revision history
Lymph is comprised of: Interstitial fluid
Solutes
Foreign materials
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:49:03 GMT view revision history
Components of the Lymphatic System 1.Lymph
2.Lymphatic capillaries
3.Lymphatic vessels
4.Lymphatic trunks
5.Lymphatic ducts
6.Lymphatic cells
7.Lymphatic nodules
8.Lymphatic organs
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:49:03 GMT view revision history
Functions of the Lymphatic System 1.Return interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream
2.Transport lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream
3.Production and maturation of lymphocytes
4.Generates an immune response against antigens in the interstitial fluid
0 mi6967 Fri, 20 Nov 2009 15:49:03 GMT view revision history

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